Colectomy is the surgical procedure performed to remove all parts or diseased parts of the colon (part of the large intestine). During the procedure, nearby lymph nodes are also removed.
Colectomy is generally performed to treat colon cancers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or diverticulitis, and may also be necessary following an injury or wound, serious infection, or bowel blockage.
There are two types of Colectomy:
- Hemicolectomy (partial colectomy or segmental resection):
In this surgery, only a part of the colon is removed. The surgeon takes out the part of the colon with cancer and a small segment of normal colon on either side. Usually around 0ne-third or one-fourth of the colon is removed, depending on the size and location of cancer. The remaining part of the colon is then reattached.
- Total colectomy:
In this surgery, all of the colons is removed. This surgery is often needed to remove colon cancer. It is mostly used only if there is another problem in the part of the colon without cancer, such as hundreds of Polyps (familial adenomatous polyposis), or inflammatory bowel disease.