Epilepsy and Seizures - Medx Health Assistance
epilepsy

Epilepsy and Seizures

  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which brain activities become abnormal, causing seizures (at least two unprovoked seizures) or periods of unusual behaviour, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.
  • A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.
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Overview

  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which brain activities become abnormal, causing seizures (at least two unprovoked seizures) or periods of unusual behaviour, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.
  • A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.
  • A mild seizure may be difficult to recognize. It can last a few seconds during which the patient may lack awareness.
  • A stronger seizure can cause spasms and uncontrollable muscle twitches and can last a few seconds or minutes. During a stronger seizure, some people become confused or lose consciousness.
  • Treatment for Epilepsy is medications and sometimes patients may require surgery.

There are two types of seizures based on the beginning place of abnormal brain activity:

FOCAL SEIZURES:

When seizures appear to result from abnormal activity in just one area of the brain, it is known as focal (partial) seizures. There are two categories of focal seizures:

  • Focal seizures without loss of consciousness:

This category of focal seizure is also known as simple partial seizures, which does not cause a loss of consciousness. The patient may alter emotions or change the way things look, smell, feel, taste, or sound. The patient may also result in involuntary jerking of a body part, such as an arm or leg, and spontaneous sensory symptoms such as tingling, dizziness, and flashing lights.

  • Focal seizures with impaired awareness:

This category is also known as complex partial seizures, in which the patient involves in change or loss of consciousness or awareness. In complex partial seizures patients may stare into space and not respond normally to the environment or perform repetitive movements, such as hand rubbing, chewing, swallowing, or walking in circles.

 

GENERALIZED SEIZURES:

When seizures appear to involve all areas of the brain, those seizures are known as generalized seizures.

There are six types of generalized seizures:

  • Absence seizures: 

Absence seizure was previously known as petit mal seizures, most often occurs in children, and is characterized by staring into space or subtle body movements such as eye blinking or lip-smacking. These seizures may occur in clusters and cause a brief loss of awareness.

  • Tonic seizures:

These seizures cause stiffening in muscles. These seizures usually affect muscle in the back, arms, and legs and may cause the patient to fall to the ground.

  • Atonic seizures:

Atonic seizures are also known as drop seizures. This seizure causes a loss of muscle control, which may cause the patient to suddenly collapse or fall.

  • Clonic seizures:

These seizures are associated with repeated or rhythmic jerking, muscle movements. These seizures usually affect the neck, face, and arms.

  • Myoclonic seizures:

These seizures usually appear as sudden brief jerks or twitches of arms and legs.

  • Tonic-clonic seizures:

These seizures were previously known as grand mal seizures. These seizures are the most dramatic type of epileptic seizures and can cause an abrupt loss of consciousness, body stiffening and shaking, and sometimes loss of bladder control or biting tongue.

Symptoms

Epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain, seizures can affect any process that brain coordinates. Symptoms of seizures are:

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or déjà vu

Causes of Epilepsy:

Epilepsy has no identifiable cause in about half of the people with the condition. In the other half, the condition may be traced are as follows:

  • Genetic influence
  • Head trauma
  • Brain conditions
  • Infectious diseases, such as meningitis, AIDS, and viral encephalitis.
  • Prenatal injury
  • Developmental disorders

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